SectionA_group6_Abhilasha_13PGP002 Session 1


Intuition-based approach


The simplest way to make sense of why and how intuition works is to think of it as an advanced pattern recognition device. Your subconscious mind somehow finds links between your new situation and various patterns of your past experiences. You may not recall most of the details of those experiences. And even if you did, it may be very hard to express the lessons you learnt in a form acceptable for analytical reasoning. Yet, your subconscious mind still remembers the patterns learnt. It can rapidly project your new circumstances onto those patterns and send you a message of wisdom. That message comes as your inner voice and will most likely be expressed in the language of your feelings. For example, some of the options or solutions you consider may not feel right to you.

Sept. 26, 1983: The Man Who Saved the World by Doing … Nothing

1983: A Soviet ballistics officer draws the right conclusion — that a satellite report indicating incoming U.S. nuclear missiles is, in fact, a false alarm — thereby averting a potential nuclear holocaust.

Lt. Col. Stanislav Petrov was duty officer at Serpukhov-15, the secret bunker outside Moscow that monitored the Soviet Union’s early-warning satellite system, when the alarm bells went off shortly after midnight. One of the satellites signaled Moscow that the United States had launched five ballistic missiles at Russia.

Given the heightened tensions between the two countries — the alarm coincided with the beginning of provocative NATO military exercises and barely three weeks after the Russians shot down a South Korean airliner that had wandered into Soviet air space — Petrov could have been forgiven for believing the signal was accurate. The electronic maps flashing around him didn’t do anything to ease the stress of the moment.

But Petrov smelled a rat. “I had a funny feeling in my gut” that this was a false alarm. For one thing, the report indicated that only five missiles had been fired. Had the United States been launching an actual nuclear attack, he reasoned, ICBMs would be raining down on them.

“I didn’t want to make a mistake. I made a decision, and that was it.” Petrov’s gut feeling was due in large part to his lack of faith in the Soviet early-warning system, which he subsequently described as “raw.” He reported it as a false alarm to his superiors, and hoped to hell he was right.

Petrov was initially praised for his cool head but later came under criticism and was, for a while, made the scapegoat for the false alarm. Further investigation, however, found that the satellite in question had picked up the sun’s reflection off the cloud tops and somehow interpreted that as a missile launch.


Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998). Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations.


7 Steps of Research Process

  1. Define Research problem
  2. Review of literature
  3. Formulate hypothesis
  4. Preparing the research design
  5. Data collection
  6. Data analysis
  7. Interpretation and report writing



Step 1: Define Research Problem


There are two types of research problem, those

  1. Relate to states of nature
  2. Relationship between variables

Essentially 2 steps are involved in defining the research problem,

  1. Understanding the problem thoroughly
  2. Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from a point of view.


Step 2: Review of Literature

Once the problem is define, a brief summary of it should be written down. It is compulsory for a research worker writing a thesis for a Ph.D degree to write a synopsis of topic and submit it to necessary committee or the research board for approval.


Step 3: Formulate Hypothesis

Formulate hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences. Hypothesis should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested.

The role of hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track.


Step 4: Preparing the Research Design.

  1. The function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.
  2. Research purpose may be grouped into three categories,
    1. Exploration
    2. Descriptive
    3. Causal



Step 5: Data Collection

Primary data can be collected through:

1.By Observation

2.Through personal interview

3.Through telephone interview

4.By mailing of questionnaires

5.Through schedules


Step 6: Data Analysis

The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories.

This stage mainly include:





Step 7: Interpretation and Report Writing

Researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him.

Writing of report includes:

  1. The preliminary pages.
  2. The main text
  3. The end matter

– Abhilasha (13pgp002)


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