Questionnaire Design

Before designing any questionnaire find out the need and objective for the survey (Research)

1. Construct

Before designing any questionnaire, make sure that the questions are specific towards the construct or the objective. Make sure there are not confusions in the objective throughout the questionnaire layout. This is the major concern as Content validity for any questionnaire. What has been left out of the measure, which is useful for the construct of the questionnaire leads to the criticism of the content validity in it. Make sure the whole questionnaire follows the construct that has to be measured as per the need for research or research objectives.

2. Use Clear & Unambiguous language

Particular directionality has to be maintained in the questionnaire, as majority of the sample respondents, won’t pay much attention to the content of the form. To make sure this, the questions in the form has to be simple and straight forward. For example, If any question is given to respondents to rate product success on a liker scale of 1(most successful) to 7(utter failure), this leads to ambiguity, to remove this assign higher responses to high scores as 1(utter failure) to 7(most successful). Provide tutorial guidelines to the respondents if there is any ambiguous questions in the survey.

3. Avoid Leading Questions

Leading questions suggest a particular response, do not use any adjectives to provide any drive towards any particular response, instead the stimulus can be provided in a neutral way to gather proper response from the respondents.

4. Avoid Double-barreled questions

Questions that asks two particular issues but allow only one response are Double-barreled questions. These questions confuse the respondents into thinking which question is correct and which question can be answered.

5. Phrase same items in a reversed manner

Some questions which were strongly agreed by respondents are expected to be strongly disagreed when reversely phrased. This enables the researchers in acquiescence bias (Yes-saying bias), the tendency to respond in a positive way always. This improves the thinking of the respondent in the opposite way.

6. Not too lengthy – Not to Short

Make sure the questions are not too short, the details of the question are to be constructed properly, so questions can be long. But they should not be too long, this reduces the motivation of the respondent to fill or go forward while taking a survey.

7. Hypothetical Situations

For some kind of surveys where observations are very important for the respondent, hypothetical situations are given and the respondent is asked what is his/her course of action in those situations. But in these kind of questions there is a factor of biasing on human reactions from person to person and situation to situation. These kind of questions helps the respondents to immerse in the construct of the form and motivates them to carry forward.

8. Pretest

Before presenting the questionnaire to respondents, find some test sample and ask them to fill the questionnaire. Take feedback from the pretest respondents on how much time it took to complete the survey, any unclear questions, any stress or uninteresting questions or uncomfortable situations are faced while filling the questionnaire.

Section B_Group 5_Kiran Tippani_13PGP085


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